The Three Daughters of China
The Chinese Phrase,henduo yiqian,means, "a long time ago". A literal translation reads "a long way in front of me", which suggests a very different sense of the direction one faces to look at the past from the one we are accustomed to. It calls to mind the image of a Chinese historian seated beside the stream of events looking toward its source, while behind him the stream runs on into the future.
The three daughters of china, they are known as Qui Shi who ruled by strength, Confucius who ruled thru example, and Mao Zedong ruled by principles, not laws.
Qui Shi asserted the principle that people are inherently evil; therefore, good behavior could be elicited only by means of carefully drafted laws backed by generous rewards and stringent punishments. These ideas of Han Fei which were taken up by Qui Shi, became later known under the name of "legalism." during his belief but repressive rule, the most important accomplishment of which was the first unification of the Chinese state. But because of his brutality, legalism was discredited, and subsequent rulers looked to the very different view of Confucius as the basis for their state ideology.
Confucius began with the opposite of Qui Shi that human nature is fundamentally good; he argued that good behavior was most effective threw means of ruler's example. His concept of a web of human relationships, (Like father and son, etc.), entailed mutual responsibilities: the subordinate was obliged to obey, the superior to provide a moral example, and if all went well, laws, rewards, and penalties would be superfluous.
Mao believed in ideological principles, not laws. Ideological principles gave rise to a "line" of corrective thinking, which in turn was translated into specific policies, each of which had implementing regulations, (years later became known as the concept of thought reform). He rejected the idea that the law is universally applicable, borrowing from Marx and Engels the idea that law is a tool that one social class uses to oppress another.
When two daughters become one, became the Maoist era. Confucian,(the paper), Mao(the liquid), that writes on the paper, then becomes the stone. The criminal that was brought to trial was presumed guilt, which wherever possible should have been established by means of a confession. Because any profession of innocence was likely to be taken as a mistake with counterrevolutionary implications, defendants who refused to confess to the crime of which they were accused of were often subject to all the tools of thought reform. The Stone, once brought to trial, the defendant was routinely granted access to a defense lawyer, whose function was not to establish the defendant's innocence but offer evidence in mitigation at the time of sentencing.
Chinese history as they are accurate accounts of the past events. Common wisdom about the Chinese past is that China has always been a strong, unified state headed by a single, powerful individual.
Tags: China , History , Daughters , Chinese
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