Cornea Transplants -Corneal Transplantation Surgical Proceedure
Corneal transplantation, known as corneal grafting or penetrating keratoplasty,represents a surgical procedure performed by ophthalmologists, that includes the replacement of a damaged or diseased cornea, the clear part of eye in front of the iris and pupil, with a donated corneal tissue, extracted from a deceased person. There can be also used synthetic corneas, conceived as a peripheral skirt and a transparent central region, connected on a molecular level by an interpenetrating polymer network, made from poly-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (pHEMA).
The purpose of the cornea transplant can be optical, tectonic/ reconstructive, therapeutic or cosmetic. The most common reason is about the improvememt of the visual acuity and the corneal scars. Cornea transplant is one of the most common procedures in the world, used to restore a good vision.
Some of the diseases that can be treated by a cornea transplant, include:
-eye herpes or fungal keratitis;
-Hereditary factors or corneal failure from previous surgeries;
-Chemical burns on the cornea or damage from an eye injury;
-Eye diseases such as keratoconus;
-Excessive swelling (edema) on the cornea.
-Complications from LASIK;
-Thinning of the cornea and irregular shape (such as with keratoconus).
The pre- operative examination requires a medical consult, in order to be established a diagnostic regarding the eye's condition and the different treatment options available.
The examination can also include several lab tests, such as blood work, X-rays, or an EKG.
In case of a surgical procedure, the doctor will proceed with a general or local anesthesia and a sedative, while preparing the patient's eye for the intervention. The surgical team will fix a metal ring over the sclera, providing a base for the trephine, that is placed over the cornea, in order to cut it. After the removing of the trephine, the doctors will use the donor cornea for cutting a circular graft, meaning a button-shaped section of tissue. The injured cornea will be replaced by using a forceps and a running stitch or a multiple interrupted stiches.The surgical intervention will be ended after the reforming of the anterior chamber with a sterile solution injected by a cannula. The doctors will apply antibiotic eyedrops after removing the metal ring. There is not needed hospitalization.
The cornea transplant does not present major side effects, excepting the risk of infection or a potential for some blood loss, that is less than 2 ml.
A possible problem can be considered the cornea graft rejection, manifested throw symptoms such as: redness of the eye, extreme sensitivity to light, decreased vision, pain. Cornea rejection can be prevented or reversed.
Tags: Cornea Transplant , Corneal Transplantation , Corneal Transplantation S , Diseased Cornea , Cornea
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