ADOPTION OF HYBRID RICE IN KALINGA
Dr. Marymina P. Odiem, Dr. Jovita E. Saguibo, Engr. Joe Casibang
Edited by Marciano Paroy Jr.
This study entitled “The Adoption of Hybrid Rice in Kalinga” was conducted in the municipalities of Tabuk, Rizal, Pinukpuk, Tanudan, Lubuagan and Pasil from June to December 2005.
1.) to determine the profile of Hybrid Rice Farmers;
2.) to elicit validate the adoption level of Hybrid rice technology; and
3.) to find out the factors and problems associated with the adoption of the technology.
The study was conducted with the following procedures:
1.) Preparation of questionnaire;
3. ) Data Collection , Analysis and Interpretation;
4.) Completion of the write-up and Reporting.
1. Almost 50% of the hybrid rice growers learned the technology through seminars/trainings/forum;
2. The farmers adopted the technology because of the good quality of hybrid rice and it is highly recommended by the technicians of the Department of Agriculture;
3. 50% of the respondents considered hybrid rice production as perfectly compatible in their locality while more than 50% considered the technology as complex in general;
4. Hybrid rice is best for home consumption for its good quality due to its good aroma;
5. Three-fourths of the farmers considered hybrid rice technology as very profitable; hence, it is generally adopted in the locality; and
6. The problems/factors associated with hybrid rice production noted in the study are:
a.) very laborious
b.) seed impurity/poor quality of seeds
c.) no drying facilities
d.) lower price of hybrid rice
e.) less milling recovery
f.) high cost of seeds
g.) limited government subsidy to hybrid rice growers.
1. The qualification of F1 seed growers should be looked into by the Department of Agriculture to avoid the production of poor seed quality.
2. farmer cooperatives should be strengthened.
3. The Department of Agriculture and other line agencies should focus more their efforts and resources on the provision of drying and storage facilities to farmers.
4. Technologists should come up with more appropriate and easier hybrid rice production strategies.
5. There must be government support to hybrid rice growers in terms of marketing their products.
Rice, as a staple food, is the predominant crop in Kalinga especially in the municipality of Tabuk. It occupies 43% or 138,509 has. of the total agricultural area of 322,939 hectares in the region. Of the 138,509 rice area, Kalinga has the biggest hectarage covering 29%, followed by Apayao, 20% , Ifugao, 18%, Abra, 17%, Mt. Province and 10% Benguet. (DA, 1999)
Kalinga has a total area of 311,970 hectares. 69,897 hectares are devoted to agriculture and 23,177 hectares are planted with rice. 14,314 hectares rice lands are found in Tabuk, and so it covers 62% – hence its selection as the site of the study (PPDO, 1998). A total of 1,986 hectares were utilized for F1, hybrid rice where 1,546 hectares are found in the municipality of Tabuk since 2000, and 86.6 hectares for seed production. (DA-Tabuk, 2003).
With hybrid rice, yield can increase by at least 15% under the same area and input levels as that of inbred or ordinary rice. In fact, a one-ton increase in rice production per hectare even in only 50% of the country’s 2.7 M harvested irrigated rice area, would already result in an additional 1.35 metric tons of palay, equivalent to .088 metric tons milled rice at 65% milling recovery. This increase in rice production can help eliminate most importation that the country resorts to annually.
At best, the Hybrid Rice Commercialization Program (HRCP) crafted by the Arroyo administration, manifest the government’s optimism and political will to solve the country’s decades-old rice problem. And at best, too, it exemplifies the confidence of the rice R&D sector that the Filipino farmer, notwithstanding the odds stuck against him, can rise to the Herculean challenge of fulfilling his nontransferable role as producer of food for the country’s burgeoning population.
Concededly, there have been apprehensions as to the farmer’s capability to adopt the hybrid rice technology. Cognizant of this, briefings, trainings, and information campaign have been launched by the national government through its agriculture agencies to help the farming sector understand, appreciate, and adopt the new technology. (Fernandez, 2002).
Finally, this research endeavor was focused on the assessment of the adoption level of hybrid rice in Kalinga.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The results of this study will provide policy makers, planners, program administrators and implementers, technicians, farmers and businessmen some insights that could help them uplift the level of Hybrid Rice Production. The Department of Agriculture may use the results as a reference in formulating better strategies, implementing guidelines and policies to enhance the achievement of their aim of improving the farmers income through Hybrid Rice Production, together with the proper agricultural, biological and chemical technologies, they will maximize their harvest with the least input thereby increasing their income and improve their quality of life.
II. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Hybrid rice technology is a key strategy for increasing rice production and achieving food security and rice self-sufficiency. Results of the Hybrid rice commercialization program in the Philippines look promising. The superior yield potential of rice hybrids, the high profitability of seed production that has also resulted in employment generation, is now being realized on farm.
From PHILRICE, Hybrid rice technology has been recognized as the key approach for increasing rice productivity in the Philippines, beginning with its inclusion in the government’s rice production program in 1998 and the launching of a Hybrid Rice Commercialization Program (HRCP) in 2002.
To ensure sustainable adoption of Hybrid Rice Technology, Socio-economic profiling activities indicated that a potential hybrid farmer should be certified seeds user, have a superior yield and rice income (Catudan and Arocena, 2003).
Economic studies, on the other hand, revealed that the farmer gets a net income of P12, 285/ha net profit from inbred rice cultivation. Some issues and concerns encountered by various stakeholders in the implementation of the hybrid rice program include: the assurance of hybrid seed demand, high cost and risk of producing hybrid seeds, the lack of improved post harvest facilities, weak extension and monitoring services, and budgetary constrains.
The launching of the hybrid rice program in the Philippines was accompanied by a massive campaign utilizing television, radio, print media and the Internet (Redoña and Gaspar, 2001). Various promotional materials were produced such as briefing kits production leaflets/booklets, posters, print/broadcast media releases, tricycle banners, street billboards and car stickers.
To support the widespread use of hybrid rice seeds in the country, the government provided marketing assistance to farmers such as production loans, discounted pricing of hybrid seeds, installment payment schemes, and fertilizer support.
The survey aimed to look into the adoption of hybrid rice in Kalinga. Specifically, it aimed to:
1. Determine the profile of hybrid rice farmers;
2. Elicit and validate the adoption level of hybrid rice technology; and
3. Find out the factors and problems associated with the adoption of the technology.
1. Framework of the study
The potential of hybrid rice technology has been recognized as a key approach for addressing the food challenge of a sustainable and efficient rice production system. This started with the inclusion of hybrid rice technology in the government’s rice production program in 1998 and the subsequent launching of a more focused hybrid rice commercialization program (HRCP) in 2002. The program aims to promote the widespread use of hybrid rice seeds in the country in order to enhance farmer’s productivity and income and to generate employment in the rural areas. The program has seven components, namely, hybrid rice commercial production (F1 cultivation), hybrid seed production, technology demonstration, training, information campaign, marketing assistance, and research and development.
Hence, this survey was conducted to improve and sustain an appropriate strategy in the promotion of hybrid rice production in the province, and to establish a data base on the correlated problems and factors associated with rice production and the adoption level of hybrid rice production.
2. Final Procedure/Methodology
The survey applied the following procedures in the data gathering:
1. Preparation of the Questionnaire. The researchers prepared structured and unstructured items in the questionnaire in order to elicit more specific ideas;
2. Coordination with Municipal Mayors and Municipal Agricultural Officers. This involved asking permission from the Mayor and Municipal Agricultural Officer (MAO) of each municipality covered by the survey. This is done to win their support in the conduct of the study; and
3. Data Collection/Gathering. Both interview and questionnaire methods were used in data collection. A questionnaire was prepared which was used as a guide in the direct interview with the farmer respondent.
3. Location and Time of the Study
The study was conducted in the province of Kalinga from June to December 2005.
Particularly, the survey was conducted in the municipalities of Tabuk, Rizal, Pasil, Lubuagan, Tanudan and Pinukpuk. Of the 8 municipalities of the province, these are the municipalities involved in the technology.
The respondents were forty five (45) hybrid rice farmers. These were samples taken from those involved in hybrid rice production in the province. They were composed of farmers whose educational background ranged from no formal schooling to post graduate studies.
PROFILE OF HYBRID RICE FARMERS
The profile of the hybrid rice farmers in Kalinga are taken on the bases of age, gender, farming status, location of farm, educational attainment, farm size, farming experience, tenurial status, experience in hybrid rice farming, and farm size devoted to hybrid rice.
Age/Gender. The farmers’ ages ranged from 26 to more than 61 years old. However, the biggest number with 12 or 26.67% was between 41-45 years old who are mostly males. This was followed by those with ages from 46-50 with the second highest number of 11 equivalent to 24.44%. The result implies that the hybrid rice growers are on the right working age to carry the hard work that farming requires. Expectedly, there are more men involved in farming than women.
Farm Size/Farming Status. The table indicates that almost one half of the respondents possessed a hectare of rice field with 20 equivalent to 44.44% of which 80% of them are employee farmers. Knowing earlier that many of the farmers were at the same time working in offices, one hectare is enough for them. The trends indicate that more employees are adopting the new technology.
Farming Experience/Tenurial Status. The biggest number of the farmer respondents has 12 years or more experience in rice farming as evidenced by the number of 15 or 33.33%. All of them are owner cultivators. The finding implies that the farmers have enough years of experience in rice farming.
Years in Hybrid Rice Production/Farm Size Devoted to Hybrid Rice. More than half of the farmer respondents experienced hybrid rice production for 1 to 2 years as shown by the number of 24 or 53.33%, with 1 hectare of their rice farms devoted for Hybrid Rice Production.
Location of Farm/Farming Status. The biggest number of hybrid rice growers is located in Tabuk as shown by the frequency of 18 equivalents to 40% with more employee farmers.
Educational Attainment/Farming Status. The results show that the biggest number of 18 or 40% belongs to the college graduate group. This confirms the earlier finding under farming status that the biggest number was employee-farmers. In technology utilization and adoption, people with higher educational attainment can easily understand and adopt the technology.
5. Analysis Of Data
The study is purely descriptive in nature using the following statistical measures as bases for description, namely; frequency, percentage and ranking.