The Long Crisis in Sudan was the result of the pre-independence injustice, inequality and marginalization in the old Sudan Government. Sudan old Government has created anger in the hearts of South Sudanese, South Sudanese are still carrying the angers and in return the proclamation of South Sudan impendence on July 9th 2011 has destabilized Sudan economy which also created anger in the hearts of Sudanese. How will angry parties discuss reasonable points? Thus United Nations, Africa Union and Inter-Governmental Authority on Development should mark all pending angers and put solution to realize peaceful coexistence between South Sudan and Sudan.
The beginning of the Sudan war
South Sudan and Sudan had been a Nation during the British colonial period from 1980s to 1956, and after Sudan independence in 1956, but the administration was based in Khartoum, abandoning the Southern region of the Sudan
South Sudanese have complied long ago ahead of Sudan impendence to the British Government, but nothing was realized, which opened the first misunderstanding between North and South Sudan in the Sudan conference held in 1953 in Egypt.
Sudan Government Country did not favor Southern Sudanese, even before the announcement of the Sudan independence in 1956. North and Southern Sudan disputes developed and the disputes reached to the hearts of generations.
The situation made South Sudanese grandfathers to demand sovereignty of South Sudan from the British in early 1940s. Southern Sudanese met in Juba the Capital of Equatoria Province in 1947 calling for federation from Sudan before Sudan impendence. The British Government supported the idea, but put fewer majors were put to address it.
The 1947 Juba conference was not unsuccessful due high illiteracy among Southern Sudanese communities. According to the report from the conference, the chiefs were manipulated and they accept the idea of building one Sudan.
Despite of the step still Southern Sudanese intellectuals raised the idea of federation in 1953 in Sudan conference held in Egypt, which failed as Egyptians even, were not interested to support the federation in Sudan. After failure of the 1953 conference, Southern Sudanese intellectuals started the idea of forceful liberation of South Sudan from Khartoum, but Sudan continued convincing them that unless Southern Sudanese agreed on the independence of Sudan they will give South Sudan federal Government.
The decision was agreed with Southern Sudanese in the 1955 Sudan Parliament and Sudan Parliament has agreed the federation of South Sudan, but the conditions were that Southern Sudanese to accept the Independence of Sudan and then after the declaration of the independence of Sudan, then Khartoum will legally announce federation of South Sudan. When Southern Sudanese agreed and the independence of Sudan was proclaimed on 1st January 1956. And when the British left the administration of the Sudan, Sudanese from the Northern Sudan changed the concept of the Federation and started new colonization of South Sudan. Among Southern Sudanese intellectuals were Santino Ohure, Elia Lupe, Agrey Jaden and many others
Before the Colonization goes high and even before the announcement of the Sudan independence in 1956, Southern Sudanese realized the agenda of Khartoum and forceful liberation 1955 Southern Sudanese in Torit.
The rebellion was result of the failures of the 1953 Sudan conference in Egypt. South Sudan and Sudan entered tensions from that period. The grievances have not stopped social engagement between the two communities “North and South Sudan”. Joseph Lagu took control of South Sudan Liberation Movement in 1955, Torit. Lagu was the commander in chief of the Southern Sudan Liberation Army (SSLA) at the same time.
The fight for independence of South Sudan was long idea since 1947, but realization was the most difficult part. The 18th of August 1955 was when the first bullet of the Liberation was released. As the struggle continued, Southern Sudanese from others parts started joining the SSLA. The war has drawn the attention of the international community and Africa Union (AU). AU pressured South and North Sudan to resolve their grievances through dialogue. The President of the Sudan and South ended the first war under agreement in 1972. When Former Sudan President Jafaar Nimeri and South Sudan former rebel leader Joseph Lagu signed the agreement, South Sudan was granted regional Government and Lagu became the Vice President of the Sudan and the President of the regional Government of Southern Sudan in 1972.
The two parts attained peace once gain and coexisted, but still lack of reorganization of Southern Sudanese continued in the Khartoum. Southern Sudanese have less access to employment and also been kept in low rangs particularly in the Sudan Army. The idea has made many Southern Sudanese intellectuals uncomfortable. Sudan took step to break the unity of the Southern Sudanese by bring Abel Alier to stand against Joseph Lagu. And when Abel took the position of Lagu, the President of Sudan declared the collapse of the 1972 agreement and again planed another plot to break Southern Sudan into pieces.
Khartoum influenced 1983 Kokora uprising. The Kokora worked for months and disappeared. Southern Sudanese realized, Khartoum brought an idea of disarming South Sudan army units. Sudan called the 105 Sudan Armed forces under the commander Garbino Kuang with the idea of disarming them. Garbino resisted the call by Nimeri and opened fire on the Government on 16th May 1983 in Bor town of Jonglei state. Southern Sudanese did not hesitated to join Garbino. Bhal el-Ghazel and Equatoria regions jointly supported the Idea and formed other movement. Sudan People Liberation Movement and Army raised and started new struggle for freedom as Nimeri denounced the 1972 Addis Ababa agreement.
The de-colonization of South Sudan was the top priority of Khartoum. When the SPLA took arms, Khartoum opened new policy to fail the Movement, but SPlA resisted and reached Comprehensive Peace agreement signed in the Kenya between the Sudan People Liberation Movement and the Khartoum Government The CPA brought about a visible ‘peace dividend and independence in South Sudan. The declaration of South Sudan independence on 9th July 2011 marked the end of six years interim period as put in the CPA.
Despite of the achievement of South Sudanese independence, the CPA was not fully implemented. The Oil share, border demarcation and Abyei protocol were among CPA pendind issues. The oil share has put the two nations in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The parties did not reach an agreement and South Sudan shut down the oil transit as Sudan tensions rose. Sudan Government on December 2011 has passed Oil Act stating that South Sudan has to pay $36 per barrel for any oil transit through Sudan. Sudan also built an illegal pipeline to divert South Sudan oil and attacked two ships of South Sudan which 835 million dollars. The situation of the two Sudans has risen to worse just days after South Sudan took the decision of closing the oil transit. Before the decision was taken, the President of the Republic of South Sudan has shared letters to the President of Uganda, Kenya and the Africa Union Level of High Implementation Panel (AUHIP) asking them to talk to the President of the Sudan Bashir to reduce the transit fee from $38 per barrel to an international standard, which is majorly less than $10. The President of the Republic of South Sudan got not voices and Sudan continued disobeys the agreements.
Early January 2012 Khartoum has prevented South Sudan ships from leaving Port Sudan. In 2011, Khartoum prevented South Sudan ships from docking to collect their purchases. And Khartoum has constructed a tie-in pipeline designed to permanently divert almost 75% of South Sudan daily entitlements.
South Sudan office in Port Sudan has confirmed earlier 2012 that documents have been processed to allow two detained ships to sail. The reason for that is an attempt to coerce the government of South Sudan into signing the cover agreement presented by the AUHIP. The act has made South Sudan to loss revenue amounting to almost 850 million dollars. And the funds are critical to the security and welfare of the citizens of South Sudan.
Despite of the Khartoum action, the president of South Sudan Salva Kiir is still Calling for fair commercial engagement and peaceful coexistence of south Sudan and Sudan. “The stability of the two countries strengthens the overall stability and economic viability of both states” Kiir. Kiir said that Addis Ababa talks between the Government of South Sudan and the Government of Sudan is based on principles of peaceful coexistence of South Sudan and Sudan and reasonable, fair commercial engagement.
“We reached this current crisis for several reasons, most significant was Khartoum’s unilateral decision to enact a bill to levy a fee of 36 dollars per barrel to the South Sudan oil that passes through their territory “ Kiir South explained to AU head of states.
Upon all blames Sudan has put against South Sudan, the oil operating companies have repeatedly explained that the Republic of South Sudan has been and is paying transit fees to Sudan. And also that South Sudan has no objection in paying Khartoum for the use of their infrastructure; however it must be a mutually agreeable price based on norms.
“We have exhausted all possibilities to resolve this situation, but to the fact that we can no longer guarantee that our oil will reach its intended destination, we cannot allow oil production to continue, the oil will remain in its natural place until the situation is amicably resolved” Kiir.
South Sudan urged Khartoum to reframe from aggression if Khartoum expects South Sudan to move forward with mature understand and contribute to the financial physical gap being experienced by the Government of Sudan only within bearable costs limits. “South Sudan is a young nation on the earth with limited development. Whatever limited resources it has, must be dedicated to developing South Sudan” Kiir.
Sudan crisis after South Sudan independence:
Sudan Government depends largely on the Oil revenues. The breakdown of Sudan on the 9th July 2011 has made Sudan to lose more than 75% of its revenues. The Government of Sudan did not close its revenue gap, rather downsize the government to enable it run. Sudan blamed South Sudan for the financial crisis in Khartoum. Beside the financial crisis, Sudan Government has lost human resource as South Sudanese in the North returned home.
South Sudanese were the people doing manual farming in North Sudan, but the business end following the declaration of the South Sudan independence, which affected food production in Sudan. The secretary General of the Sudan People Liberation Movement Pagan Amum said that Khartoum is living with anger as its sources of revenue are shut. “Khartoum is serious in Hunger as South Sudan shut down oil, and South Sudanese farmers broke away, Sudanese were feeding on South Sudan oil” Amum. “We don’t need any war with anybody, we are ready for talks, so United Nations to pressure Khartoum to return to the table in Addis Ababa” Amum continued. Abyei protocol, , Border demarcation, security and oil transit are among ongoing discussion between South Sudan and Sudan post independence talks in Addis Ababa.