State repression cannot provide solution to continuous outbursts of popular anger against Farukh Abdullah government in Kashmir. The ruling national conference party was historically the vehicle of Kashmiri regional patriotism that united different regions of Kashmir behind a charismatic popular leader Sheikh Abdullah. With track record against princely autocracy Abdullah could establish a party political organization at grassroots level. In power, Abdullah delivered land reforms, opposed unnecessary central intervention in Kashmir and demanded a negotiated settlement of Kashmir issue by India and Pakistan without undermining autonomy of provincial government in Kashmir. No doubt he neglected the sub-regional aspiration of Hindu majority in Jammu and Buddhist majority in Ladakh, till his death he retained his mass base among Kashmiri people. But like all other South Asia leaders he promoted dynastic democracy and his son Farroukh did not have courage, conviction and imagination of his father and relied too much upon Central government in India to remain power. In return the Congress Party, promoted intrigues within the National Conference, encouraged defection in the party to impose their favorite puppets on the state and rigged election to deny ordinary Kashmiris a voice in the administration. The ineptitude of Farroukh at local level and arrogance of the Congress at national level dashed to ground the hopes of Kashmiris in a democratic peaceful solution to their regional aspirations and also generated anger among Hindu majority in Jammu and Buddhist majority in Ladakh against perceived discrimination against a Kashmiri Muslim administration in Srinagar.
Since 1980s situation in the region turned towards worse. Afghanistan was dragged into prolonged conflicts with jehad against Soviet backed PDPA regime and this led to increasing radicalization of Muslim youths against Indian administration in Kashmir. Inter State Intelligence Agency in Pakistan soon encouraged radical Muslims to penetrate into Kashmir and waged war against Indian regime. The Islamic Revolution in Iran and collapse of Soviet Union further bolstered in Islamic radicalism. Many frustrated youths in Kashmir valley turned to radicalism against India. India made the situation worse by rigging election against locally based Muslim United Front in 1989. Since then radical Kasmiri youth, international Jehadists and local platform various types of anti India pro-Independence forces gathered together under the banner Hurryat in Kashmir. The government India initiated discussions with local leaders, talked to Pakistanis but failed to produce tangible results. Within India the rise of militant Hindu nationalism, state tolerated violence against Muslims in Gujarat in 2004 further undermined local Kashmir sentiments against India. Situation took a turn for worse with Hindu Kashmiris being ethnically cleansed from Kashmir valley and the excessed committed by trigger happy and besieged Indian security forces Kashmir. The failure to provide clear agenda in peace talks further contributed to violence and confrontation. Local population participated in local elections held by the Indian government but that did not imply a return of peace and democracy.
Meanwhile, Pakistan proved to be an unstable partner in peace. The ruling Pakistani elites who once promoted Taliban and Kashmiri insurgents faced now the dilemma putting a leash of them under US pressure. Their feeble attempt to reign in militants plunged the country in civil war. Army is fighting a rather weak and inconclusive battle in the Federally Administered Tribal Territory and militants are unleashing a reign of terror against ordinary folks. The government of Pakistan neither could reign in the militants whom they promoted to fight low intensity conflicts against India and to control Afghan government, nor could they allow them to gain free hand. This resulted in frustration in Kashmir. Violent protests on the streets in claiming life and security forces are unable to suppress popular anger. Unscrupulous power hungry politicians, who earlier happily worked with Indian administration are now encouraging street protests to topple the democratically elected government. But corpses are growing and fragile peace is the greatest casualty. Kashmir demands covert diplomatic negotiation by US and its allies without upsetting the delicate regional balance.