Diabetes is a condition affecting the body’s metabolism functions. A huge proportion of the world’s people does not have clear information about diabetes as a disease. There are two major types of diabetes; type 1 and type 2. The third type of diabetes is gestational diabetes which is a minority and affects less than 4% of pregnant women.
Type 1 diabetes also known as juvenile onset or insulin-dependent diabetes. It is referred to so due to the fact that it affects children and its patients have to take insulin in order to survive. This type of diabetes is an immune disorder in which the body’s immune system attacks and destroys insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. Due to this, glucose levels in the blood increase damaging normal body functions. The main cause of this type of diabetes is genetically inherited factors. This disease is also attributable to environmental factors. Research, however, shows a low correlation in genetic inheritance of the disease. Symptoms here usually develop quickly and individuals can tell that they are diabetic within a short period of time.
Type 2 diabetes is a disorder in which the body does not produce enough insulin or produces no insulin at all leading to accumulated glucose levels in the blood. This type of diabetes is also referred to as adult-onset diabetes since it commonly affects adults. This type of diabetes is caused by what may be referred to as `tiring` of the body’s insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. Individuals who eventually suffer from type 2 diabetes exhibit resistance to insulin absorption leading to their pancreas producing more insulin in order to balance blood glucose.
The effect of this is that the cells of the pancreas wear out and eventually produce inadequate or no insulin at all. In its early stages, this type of diabetes can be managed by lifestyle adjustments such as diet and exercising but eventually as the disease progresses, medication may become necessary. The connection of an individual inheriting this disease from a parent or grandparent is stronger than in type 1 diabetes. Another factor that contributes to the risk of contracting this type of diabetes is a lifestyle; what an individual eats and how they treat their body in terms of physical exercise are of importance. Individuals that are of above average weight are at a higher risk of contracting it. In contrast to type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes develops gradually over time and is harder to detect.