Human Genome project officially began on October 1st, 1990 coordinated by the National Institute of Health and Department of Energy;
The genome for the Human Genome Project was collected from the blood (female) and sperm (male) samples of the donors. Donor’s identity was protected. The method involved the breaking down of the entire genome into small pieces of about 1,50,000 base pairs in length and they were then introduced into a vector called Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC). The vector with the gene was introduced into the bacteria, multiple copies were produced, and these are then sequenced separately by shot gun method and then assembled to get entire chromosome.
By the Human Genome Project the sequencing of the entire human genome is not completed, about 92% of the human genome has been sequenced. There are still some regions to be sequenced these includes the highly repetitive regions like the centromere (central region of the chromosome), telomere (ends of the chromosome) and gaps scattered around the genome.
Now the sequence of human DNA is stored in a database called GenBank, available to anyone on the internet. Thus Human Genome Project gave us a better understanding of the entire human genome which would provide new advancements in the field of medicine. It also helps to identify the mutated gene and researchers could narrow down their studies to a particular gene. Similarities between the genes of different organisms open doors for evolution. Thus Human Genome Project was a great success. Not only the project exceeds the goal but also they are progressing on the achieved goals.